3D Computer Graphics Using Blender 2.80 - Modelling Methods, Principles & Practice

          Blender Tutorials: 608 Bearing - part 9

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Part 9 Materials and Rendering

At the introduction to this tutorial I said I would not cover materials, textures or many of the other vast array of features available within Blender. However to use your model for visualisation or design drawing purposes you do need to know a little about the process of applying materials and rendering images to 2D bitmaps.

Outliner We will use the detailed model for this section so open the 608-Bearing.blend file. When Blender opens it automatically inserts a Camera and Lamp object into your scene (3D workspace), in the outliner select the Camera object

Top View In top view move the camera G and position it to the front and right of 
the bearing.
 Rotate it R to point at the Bearing, also check it points at the bearing in side view.

Camera Settings In the Editing Buttons
window the Camera panel gives options for the camera.

The default lens is 35mm, to wide an angle for a decent image so change this to 55mm which will give a less distorted view. 
For a full description of the camera controls see the Blender Wiki.
Camera View With the mouse pointer over the 3D window press NumPad 0 which will open the camera view.
Select the outer rectangle of the camera RMB and move it G so it is centred on the bearing.If the bearing doesn't fit in the camera view signified by the dotted rectangle truck the camera along its view axis G-MMB and moving the mouse.

Material Buttons
When the bearing is positioned in the camera’s view select the beraing, then select the Shading button and the materials sub context button. This will open the Links and Pipeline panel, click on add new to open a new material. 
Links and Pipeline

Materials Buttons Colour Options
A range of material panels will become available to you. In the Material tab change the R, G, B sliders to .560 to give a darker grey.

Texture       Add Texture    
Click the texture sub context and in the Texture panel click “Add New”. Select "Image" from the popup list
Load Image
In the Image panel load the shinyball_ref.jpg image.
This can be downloaded from the Blender Texture Disk. A link to the Texture Disk is available on the Blender Web Site, on the resources page.

Map Input Go back into the material sub context buttons and in the “Map Input” tab and click Refl which will make the image affect the reflection vectors (See Blender Wiki).

In the “Map To” tab leave the default settings.
Map To Currently the 3D space has a dark blue background and we need to change this to white.  


White Colour              World Settings
In the World sub context, World panel change HoR, HoG and HoB to 1.00.

In top view NumPad 7 select the Lamp RMB and move G it to the left of the camera.

Lamp Copy the Lamp Shift-D and move the copy to the right of the camera.

In front view, select both cameras Shift-RMB and move them G above the bearing.
Lamp Buttons                         Lamp Buttons
Lamp Settings The Lamp panel gives the settings for Energy, distance, colour etc.

The default settings should be OK for this render.

Render Settings
In the context buttons, click on the scene and sub context Render button.

In the Format Panel change the Size x and Size Y to 800 pixels and change the image format from Jpeg to PNG.
Format Settings

In the Render panel de-select "Ray", as we don't need to use Ray Tracing.

Set "OSA" to 16, so we get a good smooth edge to the render.

Press the Render button, a new window will open and an image of the bearing will be created.

Render Settings
Bearing with reflection
This is a pretty basic grey colour material and with a little time and experimentation with the material controls, a much more convincing material could be obtained. Read the blender documentation and look at examples of materials posted by other users to gain more experience in creating realistic materials.

Seperate components on Y Axis As most of the parts we have modelled are hidden within the dust shields it would improve a drawing layout if we included an exploded view.

This can be created by simply moving each of the components along the Y axis.

Go into top view NumPad 7 and select the back circlip move it constrained to the Y axis away from the bearing. Repeat this for all the other components spreading them in order along the axis. They can easily be reassembled by snapping the cursor to the bearing race and then snapping the other components to the cursor.
Reposition Camera

Reposition the camera to get all the components in the view.

With all the parts being the same material it is a little confusing and difficult to separate the parts where they overlap. To overcome this we can change the material of the bearing cage to a brass coloured material.

Select 608-CageA .

Single User In the Links and Pipeline panel after the material name is the number of objects using the material. 
Click on the number and accept "Single User". This will stop the following material  changes affecting any of the other objects. Rename this material Bronze.

To change the colour of the cage click on the colour square in the Materials tab. This will open the colour picker. Choose a bronze colour.

In the "Mirror Trans" tab de-select Ray Mirror and in the Texture tab click on Clear to remove the reflection image.
Change Colour

Render Exploded View To add this material to the other half of the Cage, select 608-CageB and in the links and Pipeline tab click on MA:Steel. Select Brass from the list.

To output the picture of the exploded view  select the Render Buttons and in the Render panel press the Render Button.

As before a window will open and the Exploded View will be produced.

Press F3 and save the image.

With the two images created press Ctrl-W and save your .blend file.

In the last section we will create a scaled line drawing of the bearing and add these two images to enhance the layout.

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