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3D Computer Graphics Using Blender 2.80 - Modelling Methods, Principles & Practice

          Blender Tutorials: 608 Bearing - part 11

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Part 11 The Scaled Drawing Layout


Up to now everything has been produced on layer one of the twenty available layers within Blender. By organising your work onto different layers, Blender allows you to set different lighting and rendering parameters for objects on different layers. As we need to combine some of the objects rendered with the edge render facility of blender, together with others that do not use the edge setting we will need to organise our layers and render output.

Firstly we will set our scene. If you still have a .blend file open, save your work Ctrl-W and then open a new file Ctrl-X.
Save the new file Ctrl-W as "608-Layout.blend".

Append all the A4p objects from the PageTemplate.blend file produced in part 10. Shift-F1 to open the File Browser window in Append mode and from the "PageTemplate.blend" file LMB click Object then RMB select all the A4p objects. Click on Load Library to bring them into the new file. They will be placed on Layer one, as this was the layer they were created on.

Now append all the parts of the 608 Bearing into the file. In front view NumPad 1 select all the components of the bearing and move them G to the top left corner of the page template. As the bearing is only 22mm across we will scale it 2:1. With all the components still selected press S for scale then 2 for the scale factor. The bearing will double in size.

Open the outliner as detailed in Part 4. All the components of the Border and Bearing will be listed.

Front and Side View Copy the bearing (all bearing components selected) Ctrl-D and move the copy on the X-axis to the right hand side of the original. In top view NumPad 7 Rotate the bearing 90 degrees. Go back into front view NumPad 7
We now have a front and side view, within the page border.
Front side and Section view
With the side view still selected copy the components and move them below the original. This will be used to create a part section through the bearing.

The Front, Side and Part Section view of the bearing needs to be rendered using Blenders edge render facility and therefore needs to be rendered separately  Move Layer panel
from the rest of the layout.

Box select the three bearings and press M which will open the Layer Move panel click on layer 2 and press OK. The two bearings will disappear from view until layer 2 is activated. To bring the bearings back into view, Shift-LMB on layer 2 in the view header’s layers panel.

Layer Panel
Outliner If your computer is slowing down due to the amount of detail in the bearing’s you can delete the components that won’t be seen. 
I have removed the balls, both cages the back dust shield and circlip from the front view and all but the 608-Race from the side view. The section view needs all the components.

Material Settings We now need to set the material to give a line drawing effect. Select the race of the side view and in the Material panel of the Material buttons, change Col to white (click on the grey square next to it and choose 
white from the colour picker) Click Shadeles so the colour isn't affected by any lamps in the scene.

Material Index

In the Link and Material panel of the Edit buttons  select "2 Mat 2" to choose the second material and press Delete to delete it.

Auto Name colour In the Links and Pipelines panel click on the small Car button to auto name the colour.

Ray Mirror In the Mirror Trans tab make sure Ray Mirror  is not selected.

Texture Tab
In the Texture tab click Clear to remove the texture.

Format Change the SizeX: and SizeY: to those detailed on the page template, (text      outside the Page Border). Set the output to PNG and select RGBA.

The RGBA button will save the render with a transparent background allowing us to overlay the lined drawing over the standard render.
Render Layer In the Render Layer tab of the Render Buttons click Layer 2 which will restrict the render to the objects on this layer.

Output On the Output tab click Edge and then Edge Settings.

In the Edge Settings pop up window change Eint: to 2.

This will set the line intensity so it predominantly highlights the main edges.
Click on the Camera and in the Edit buttons Camera panel click on Orthographic to use the orthographic camera mode.

Set the scale to 279.4 as detailed on the page template.

With the mouse over the 3D view press N to open the Transform Properties window and set the camera view parallel to the Page Template.RotX:90, Y:0, Z:0.

Align the Camera with the page boundary.

World Settings In the World panel of the Material buttons set the background colour to white.

The Front and side view's are now setup to give us a line render but before we do this we need to section and scale the Part Section view.
Top View De select All then in wire view Box select the components of the bearing we are going to use for a section view.

Go into local view NumPad /. Then Shift-RMB the outer race and join all the components Ctrl-J.

Its easier to cut through the bearing as a single mesh than to have to repeat the cuts for each component.  

Select and Delete In top view NumPad 7 De select All the vertices then Box select all the vertices to the front of the bearing centre (not the vertices on the centre line).
Delete X these vertices.

Clean edge
Zoom in SW on the centre of the bearing and delete any remaining vertices that were missed by the Box select.
Delete Lower Quadrant In front  view NumPad 1 repeat the process of selecting and deleting vertices. This time though  remove the lower quadrant of the bearing.

Select front Vertices
Copy Vertices
In top view Box select the single row of vertices on the bearing centre line.

Copy these vertices Shift-D and move them on the Y axis forward of the bearing.

Separate them from the bearing P.

We will use this slice through the bearing to add the hatch pattern to the section view.
Tab into Object Mode and go into Global view NumPad /. select the slice through the bearing we have just created and go back into Local view NumPad / for this object. Tab into Edit Mode.
Fill Each Area Individually
Link select L each closed area of the slice and fill the area Shift-F with faces. Beautify the fill Alt-F to give a cleaner mesh.

Fill areas
Press A to de-select the vertices then repeat the process on the next closed area.

Continue until all the faces of the section are filled.

De-select All vertices.
Seperate areas on Y axis

Link select the two areas that represent the bearing race and in top view NumPad 7 move them G forward of the other areas of the bearing, on the Y axis.

Repeat this  for the other areas of the section making sure no two components touch each other on the same plane.

This is necessary so the Edge Render filter can detect the edge of each component.

Select Race

Link select the inner and outer race sections.

 We are now going to add a hatch pattern to this area.


Adding Multiple Materials   
In the Link and Materials panel of the Editing buttons press "New"  to add a new material.

 Press Assign to assign this material index to the selected vertices.

Add Texture

       Texture Tab

In the Texture Buttons Texture tab click the number next to the TE:Tex box and accept single user. Add New to add a new texture. In the Texture Type button click None and then select  Image from the pop up menu.

RMB Click on the hatch patterns opposite and "Save Target As..." to save the images.

In the Image panel load "LineAngle1.png". To make the hatch render smaller, repeat the texture on the section by changing Xrepeat: and Yrepeat: to 2 in the Map Image panel.

Hatch Pattern If you render the image at this stage a hatch pattern will be created on the bearing race.

To add further hatch patterns Link select the area to hatch (for this example both halves of the bearing cage). In the Links and Materials panel of the Edit Buttons Click "New" then "Assign". Material 3 has been created and assigned to the selected vertices. 
In the Texture panel set the texture to single user. In the Image panel of the Texture Buttons change the texture to "LineAngle2.png"
Completed Hatch Repeat this process until all the section faces are filled with a hatch pattern.

Change Xrepeat and Y repeat to resize the textures.

We are now ready to render the line drawing. In the Render Buttons, Render panel , press "Render". Or use the keyboard shortcut F12.

When complete close the Render window and save the image F3 as 608-Line.png.

Save you work Ctrl-W

For the rest of the layout we won't need to use the edge rendering setup, so on the Render buttons Output tab de-select edge. In the Render Layers tab select layer 1

Render Layers

To add dimensions to the layout we will use the Blender Caliper script. The script doesn't come already loaded with blender but can be downloaded from

Follow the instructions on their site to load the script. And read the user documentation.
Calipur Script In blender split the view and open a script window as detailed for the Bevel script in part 4. But this time load the "Blender Caliper" script from the "Wizards" section of the scripts pop up list.
It may also be necessary to first click "Update Menus" from the same pop up list to register the script in Blender.

Select Verts Before we can dimension the bearing we need to add some points to dimension.

In Edit Mode select Shift-RMB the two vertices at the widest point of the bearing on the same edge loop.

Copy these Shift-D in the Z axis below the bearing.
Extrude these vertices in the Z axis to the point where you want the dimension to be.
Duplicate and extrude Then extrude them again so the dimension lines will pass the dimension arrow.
Shift-RMB select the 6 vertices of the dimension line and separate
P them from the 608-race mesh 

Add Dimension Tab into Object Mode and select the Dimension Lines. Tab back into Edit Mode for this object. In the Edit Buttons Link and Materials panel change the objects name to Dim.

Select the two middle vertices of the dimension lines and with Blender Caliper set as indicated above press "Measure".

Repeat for other dimensions

Thicken Dimension Lines Tab into Edit Mode for the Dim object and select all the vertices on the left hand dimension lines. To thicken these lines for rendering extrude them -0.2mm on the X axis.

Repeat this on the right hand lines extruding them 0.2mm on the x axis.
Add Section Marker Link select one of the dimension lines and copy it Shift-D. Move it over the bearing and re shape it to form 
the section markers.

In the Material buttons Links and Pipeline panel change the material to Black.

In Object Mode copy one of the dimensions text objects and Tab into Edit Mode.  Change the text to Z, Tab back into Object Mode. Move Z to the section marker. Copy this and move it to the other marker.

Add Title to section Select one of the dimension text objects and copy it to below the section view. Change the text as indicated and scale the text to a suitable size.
To finish editing text, fill in the fields in the Title Box.
Title Box

Insert Image Plane The final part to the layout is to add the 3D image of the bearing created in Part 9, along with the exploded view.

to do this add a Plane and Move it G to the top right corner of the layout. Scale the plane Shift-S to fit in the area next to the line drawing.
In the Material buttons Links and Pipeline panel add a new material. In the Material panel set the material to Shadeless. 

In the Texture buttons Texture panel add a new texture. set the texture type to Image and in the Image panel load the rendered 3D view created in Part 9.

Add Exploded View Plane          Rendered Version of Page The image won't be visible on the plane until it is rendered.

To ensure the Plain is set at the correct aspect ratio for the image, in Object Mode select the Plane and press Alt-V. The planes shape will change to suit the loaded image. Reposition the plane if necessary.

Add another Plane in the lower right area of the layout and repeat the above process but this time load the Exploded View.png from Part 9

If you render the Layout now F12 you will get an image with all the Layout elements except the line drawings.

Combined Layout In the Format panel of the Render Buttons leave the output as PNG but change the image format to RGB. We don't need an alpha channel on this image.

Press F12 to render the image. Close the render window, press F3 and save the image as 608-Layout.png

The final stage is to combine the 608-Line.png created above with the 608-Layout.png.

This can be carried out either using the Node Editor within Blender or by using an external image editing program such as gimp.

The Node Editor is to complex to cover in this tutorial so, In the image editor of your choice open both 608-Layout.png and 608-Line.png. Copy 608-Line.png to the clipboard and paste it into 608-Layout.png as a new layer. The line drawing will sit over the layout drawings without obscuring them because it was saves with a transparent background. Finally in the Image Editing program resize the image to 300 dpi.

The final result gives a good layout drawing, easily capable of communicating the essential elements of a product design. With sufficient planning and forethought any component could be created, rendered and dimensioned in Blender.

The Layout and drawing style no doubt won't comply with ISO drawing standards. It will however be perfectly adequate to manufacture to.

If you were new to Blender when you started this tutorial, hopefully you have come a long way to understanding the Blender concept. Perfect your skills by measuring components and modelling them in Blender. Read all available tutorials and Internet guides. The program is free, so to support its continued development, buy the books from the Blender Shop or as your experience grows support the on line community with tutorials and advice to new users.

I hope you have enjoyed and benefited from this tour through Blenders modelling tools and hope you go on to become an active member of the Blender community.


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